The four stages in the screening process consist of eight carefully sequenced steps. Click on any of the links below for a brief description of what will take place in that step
- Project Information
- Hazards and Location
- Impact on Built Defenses
- Impact on Natural Defenses
- Non-physical Project Components
- Development Context
- Results Summary
The screening sequence begins with the keying of basic project information into the screening tool, including project title, country and region, sector codes, thematic codes and financial information.
Exposure to Hazards
In this step, project teams assess the project’s exposure to climate and geophysical hazards based on project location. Specific hazards to be addressed include:
- Extreme temperature
- Extreme precipitation and riverine flooding
- Sea level rise
- Storm surge
- Strong winds
- Volcanic eruptions
Impact on Built Defenses
In this step, project teams rate the impact each hazard could have on their project’s built (structural) flood defenses, that is, man-made defenses designed to keep water from entering and flooding an area. Two examples of hazards that can have serious impact:
- Strong winds, which can increase wave height and strength, resulting in scour of defense structures
- Tsunamis and storm surges, either of which can damage sea walls and other barriers.
Impact on Natural Defenses
Coastal ecosystems are a natural form of flood defense. Ecosystems like mangrove habitat, for example, can attenuate storm waves and protect inland areas from flooding and erosion. Some coastal flood protection projects therefore include investments in protecting, reinforcing or mimicking these natural defenses.
In this step, screeners evaluate the impact each hazard could have on coastal ecosystem features and their project’s investments in them. For example:
- Higher sea levels and storm surges can destroy coastal vegetation and reduce the effectiveness of beach nourishment measures.
- Rising ocean temperature and acidity can lead to bleaching of coral reefs.
- Increased salinity can change composition of mangroves.
Non-physical Project Components
In this step, screeners rate how well their project’s non-physical components can manage or reduce the risk of hazards. Non-physical components are project investments that do not include physical construction or work with the physical environment. They include zoning regulations, emergency planning, technical training and long-term monitoring and research.
Influence of Development Context
In this step, project teams rate how significantly the broader development context influences and modulates the risk of hazards, either positively or negatively. The development context includes the social, economic, environmental and political forces that surround the project. For example:
- Effective emergency preparation and response protocols can reduce the damage caused by tropical cyclones.
- Population growth and development in low-lying areas along a coastline can increase the number of assets and people at risk from coastal storms and surges.
Overall Risk to Project Outcomes
Based on the previous evaluations and ratings, screeners rate the overall level of risk to their project’s Outcomes / Service Delivery. The screening tool guides users in reviewing the various risks hazard by hazard, helping them to identify which hazards pose the greatest risk to the project.
In the Results Summary, the outputs of the screening process are automatically compiled by the tool and presented in summary matrices by project component and by time frame (Historical/Current and Future). The results are intended to help project screeners determine the appropriate level of effort for further studies, consultation and dialogue as they complete their project design.